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Friday, May 27, 2011

Discourse 319. Press Freedom in America Today

Discourse 319
By Aliyu U. Tilde, Nigeria
One would expect to find United States of America right there at the top of the ladder of Press Freedom index. My expectations were not baseless. The United States has, arguably, the richest heritage on press freedom. Its founding fathers were categorical on the importance of the Press. Thomas Jefferson once said, “our liberty depends on the freedom of the press, and that cannot be limited without being lost.” I thought that over two hundred years after that statement was first made, citizens of the “Empire of Liberty” that its third President once envisioned must have striven hard enough to reach and remain at the summit of nations that believe in and practice the doctrine, just as its skill and hard work has finally made it to forge on with Western Civilization after Imperial Europe has foundered.
And America did in fact tried hard to be at the summit. About a hundred years ago it passed the First Amendment, which is a body of citizen’s rights that included freedom of the press. Its courts have guarded the press even against content regulation by states like when the Supreme Court in 1974 ruled that the First Amendment mandated freedom, not responsibility to publish. It houses a number of press centres and has the highest newspapers per capita in the world. It has, most importantly, bequeathed to the world constitutional provisions that paved the way to the spread of the ideals and practice of the doctrine to many parts of the world.
The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), which Lyndon Johnson signed into law in 1966 is perhaps the single most revolutionary legislation that has aided journalism and the fight against corruption since World War II. That piece of legislation has crossed the Atlantic and caused some dramatic damages to politicians in Britain two years ago. The Nigerian National Assembly has just passed it and I cannot imagine the explosion it would cause when finally put into action.
American presidents are also renown for their rhetoric on press freedom. This year, when it hosted the World Press Freedom Day, its President and the de facto “Global Inspector-General of Police”, pointed accusing fingers at some countries. “Last year,” he declared,
“was a bad one for the freedom of the press worldwide. While people gained greater access than ever before to information through the Internet, cell phones and other forms of connective technologies, governments like China, Ethiopia, Iran, and Venezuela curtailed freedom of expression by limiting full access to and use of these technologies.”
Obama was not done. “Moreover,” he added,
“more media workers were killed for their work last year than any year in recent history. The high toll was driven in large part by the election-related killings of more than 30 journalists in the Philippine province of Maguindanao, the deadliest single event for the press in history, along with murders of journalists in Russia, Somalia, Mexico and Honduras. In this year, like in other years nearly three out of four of the journalists killed were local news-gatherers who were murdered in their own nations.”
Finally, American journalists themselves seem to have an inbuilt impression that their milieu is the best a journalist can operate on. “We have it much better than any where in the world but it is not as if we don’t have stain either”, recently declared David Kansas, Chief Market Correspondent, Wall Street Journal, when he appeared before us on a discussion panel titled “State of Press Freedom in America” at New York office of Foreign Press Centre. In that discussion, Joshua Friedman, Director of International Programs, Columbia University of Journalism School, spoke about the “four reasons,” why “it is easier to practice journalism here”.
And the reasons are really enviable to the rest of world, even if he sounded a bit condescending:
1. There is no Press law. In your countries, mostly, they have a press law that says it protects journalists. It does not.
2. No certification. Any idiot can get up in the morning and say I am a journalist, especially if your father has a printing press or you have a computer on your desk.
3. No Criminal Libel. If I libel someone, may be I have to pay money, but they can’t throw me in jail as they can in your countries, which is a simple trick when they do not allow you to have information, you get it wrong, they say you go to jail.
4. Easy to get documents since the last forty years. There has been a reform which we call FOIA. We do not have to rely on gossip and rumours as you do in your countries. (End of quote)
The point is that despite the above enviable record, America was the 15th on this year’s Freedom of the Press index. The index, in the words of its authors, Freedom House, Washington, “assesses the degree of print, broadcast and internet freedom in every country in the world, analysing the events and development of each calendar year.”
The countries ahead of America on this index are, in top to bottom order, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, Iceland, Luxembourg, Andorra, Denmark, Switzerland, Leichtenstein, Netherlands, Palau, New Zealand, St. Lucia, Ireland, Monaco, Germany, Marshall Irelands, Portugal, St. Vincent and Grenadines, and San Marino.
Then came America …
What would have informed its delayed arrival on the list? This was one of my major concerns throughout the recently concluded World Press Freedom Day celebrations. The discovery of factors that impede the complete realization of such important article of liberty in America will definitely be of importance in understanding the roots of the constraints to press freedom in my own country.
Let us start with the Freedom of Press 2011 highlighted about the United States. In the only paragraph it dedicated on America, it said, the position is even an improvement on the previous years:
“The United States remain one for the better performers in the index, but it faces several challenges, including a lack of protection-of-sources legislation at the federal level and a threat to media diversity stemming from poor economic condition for the news industry. In 2010, protection for free speech was strengthened by a new law designed to shield American writers from “libel tourism” cases in foreign lands. Also during the year, several major releases of classified documents by the anti-secrecy organization, WikiLeaks, led to heated debates over the ability of democracies to take legal action against those responsible for publicizing leaked information.”
Beyond these, I was privileged to capture the more notorious problems from the May 5 discussion at the Foreign Press Centre in New York. When the moderator of the panel, J.B. Leedy, asked Edith Lederer, a member of the panel and Chief UN correspondent, Associated Press (AP), about the challenges facing the press in America, she admitted, after explaining how APs maintain First Ammendment lawyers on is payroll, that the past ten years has not the most difficult to get information:
“In my journalistic career there is a lot greater effort in the past ten to fifteen years to try to very tightly control access to information. In the US those of us who try to practice this craft professionally, there is a lot of barriers to jump.”
Joshua Friedman also came in to shed more light on “why the freedom of expression is rolling back in the USA. He said,
The major reason in my view is that the membership of the press is changing… We had a tradition in this country when newspapers, being the major medium of news, were owned by individuals or families usually in a particular city… I would say since the 70s, especially in the 90s there is a huge shift in corporate ownership of the media… the problem… since when the Reagan administration began to relax the rules that prevented the conflict of interest…. So now the press in the US is not as fiercely independent as it should be. But still it is a hell lot better than in your countries. “
Then Leedy asked David Kansas if he “ever had a political pressure as editor in the “still conservative” Wall Street Journal which was recently acquired by a new investor. He replied,
I think remarkably no… That does not mean that we do not get political pressure or questions about why a particular story line is not being followed by staff editors… But I do know that prior to acquiring the present ownership the management of our paper had a particular point of view about the Iraq war and there were questions in the news meeting during the second Iraq War that seemed strangely leading from time to time…
An editor in the US has great freedom as have been described but they will still face pressure.  Here is a local paper in the US that wants to write a top story about the auto dealer who is their main advertiser, the main source of income for the entire paper, you can have a very difficult task and it means it is very hard to write that story. I was the head of a business journal organization just created to give editors the backbone to try to deal with that kind of local pressure. And if you work in Wall Street Journal, a national paper, you will get pressure to face questions and the skill of an editor is to phase down these questions and protect the reporters can pursue their reporting activities without fear or favour.
And it is not as easy as it sounds. You just don’t wake up in the morning and say,  “I can do anything I want; there is nothing to worry about.” There are always competing pressures. We have it much better than any where in the world but it is not as if we don’t have stain either.”
The above comments have clearly shown that even in the US, media houses are not absolutely free from pressure of interest groups, like in other countries. Ownership and patronage would continue to remain eternal sources of such pressures. It reflects the ancient adage of the tone of the pipe following its benevolent sponsor. The hands of government will continue also to subtly regulate the broadcast media, with its monopoly over licensing as Friedman has pointed out, though we expect such control to be more subtle in the US than it is in the developing countries.
Finally, I would like to mention the constraints imposed by the position of America in the world as a superpower. This is where issues of national security wade in to apply sharp brakes to freedom of the press in America. At no time has this phenomenon manifested itself since World War II than in the aftermath of the World Trade Centre bombings and the in the wars that ensued – Iraq and Afghanistan. The Bush administration succeeded in gagging the entire American press to the extent that any criticism of government policy on the war was interpreted as unpatriotic. It is now clear that Saddam did not have the nuclear arsenal that was used as a pretext for the second Iraq war. Yet, with the benefit of hindsight, one would wonder how the foremost champion of liberty and freedom of the press in the world could not discover the facts that would have saved thousands of American lives and the destruction of the Iraq.
The war in Afghanistan has imposed more strict limitation to personal liberty and freedom of the press. Addressing a gathering of jurists on Eminent Jurists Panel on Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights in 2006, Frank Smyth, the Washington Representative and Journalist Security Coordinator of Committee for Protection of Journalists (CPJ) noted that
“In the aftermath of September 11 and through the invasion of Iraq, CPJ identified a trend among U.S. cases of assaults on source confidentiality, including the prolonged detentions of several U.S. journalists who resisted subpoenas in criminal cases, we also highlighted three categories of attacks on the press: (1) efforts to restrict information aired by U.S.-funded broadcasters, and attempts to persuade both private U.S. television networks as well as at least one foreign broadcaster to restrict the news; (2) attacks by U. S. forces known as foreign media broadcasting sites as well as one hotel with a concentration of international journalists; and (3) the prolonged detention of foreign journalists by U. S. military forces at overseas locations.”
Then Smyth went on to list examples for each category of attack on the press by the U.S. government and its officials.
Perhaps if we examine the nature of how even organizations like the United Nations guard their information, we would be more inclined to moderate our criticism of the American government that occupies the position of a superpower, with a defined territory and a specific citizenry whose interest it must guard world over.
At the New York Foreign Press Centre discussion panel, the Chief UN correspondent of AP, Edith Lederer, gave us some insight into the difficulties confronted by journalist attempting to dig into the activities of the body. “It is hard to ferry out information from the UN… You just can’t go and ask for freedom of information records.”
If the UN that is the mother of UNESCO, the world body mandated with overseeing human rights and freedom of the press would be so limiting in acceding information to the press, it will not be difficult to understand what a sovereign nation like America would do to secure sensitive information relating to its national security, as it sees its war in Afghanistan, or when it undertakes “a war of choice”, as Obama often refers to its misadventure in Iraq.
All said, America by the circumstances of its position as a superpower would continue to trail behind many nations in freedom of expression, despite its rich heritage of laws and institutions that safeguards the doctrine. The nations above it on the Freedom of Information index ladder are understandably small nation that hardly face such enormous challenges. It might still be comforting for the average American to note that his country is ahead of the United Kingdom and Germany, not to mention countries like Russia and Italy, which though sharing the ideals of Western civilization, could not make it even to the list of countries with a free press in 2011. Forever, the twin problems of ownership and patronage will also continue to pose challenges to journalists in both the print and broadcasting media since the entire economy is profit based but especially in periods of financial uncertainties. Given these facts, the press in the developing countries, I would advise, could as well be less utopian about its freedom.

Jefferson may need to moderate for us his stand on press freedom via email from beyond. I cannot say whether he would have been more generous to journalists than either Bush or Obama, were he the President today. In any case, the reality is that America, against his prediction, has been able to limit press freedom in the ways mentioned above but without losing it.

Abuja, Nigeria
27 May, 2011

Thursday, May 26, 2011

ICC and the Mladics in Nigeria

ICC and the Mladics in Nigeria
By Dr. Aliyu U. Tilde

The arrest of Radko Mladic, the Serbian General who, in 1995, massacred over 8,000 Muslim men and boys in Srebrenica, Bosnia, has just been confirmed by Serbian authorities. The arrest of Mladic, though long overdue, does send another strong signal to the rest of humanity that the enemies of peaceful coexistence can be apprehended wherever they may be in the globe.

When Mladic was directing the massacre, he and other Serbian leaders like Milosevic and Radovan Karadic, must have thought that they would get away with it, while enjoying the protection of the Serbian government and the cheers of its nationalists. They expected the Christian West to turn a blind eye on the massacre of Muslims, as it is doing to the Palestinians. It turned out to be a gross miscalculation similar to that done by agents of hate and barbarity in the Third Reich.

It was ultraconservatives like the British Prime Minsiter Margaret Thatcher that awakened the West to its responsibity. These are Europeans killed, she argued, pointing to the Muslim victims of Bosnia. In the end, the killings were stopped by the joint efforts of the UN, America and several European countries. Not withstanding the time it has taken to arrest the principal culprits, Europe has demonstrated its post World War II commitment that never would it allow atrocities similar to those committed by Nazi Germany be repeated on its soil.

With time that commitment is shouldered by the rest of the world. After Bosnia, agents of hate have continued to commit such atrocities in other parts of the world like the horrific massacre of 700,000 Tutsis in Rwanda and the war crimes committed in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Here too, the International Criminal Court (ICC) has reached at the main culprit, the ex-Liberian leader, Charles Taylor.

Different war crimes are still committed in various parts of the world with Africa registering the most barbaric. The prolonged wars in Congo, Sudan, Somalia and Uganda are daily witnessing killings, rapes, and maimings of innocent citizens. The brains behind these war crimes take solace that African countries and indeed the United Nations are incapable of stopping them. However, it is just a question of time before the world would unite and put an end to those who still cannot subdue the savage gene in their blood. Africa will be civilized, respecting the lives and properties of its citizens. A number of the culprits have been apprehended. There are some like Al-Bashir of Sudan who are still buying time. But, like Mladic, in the end the long arm of the law will reach them.

It is in this light that I think the ICC should take the recent trend of ethnic cleansing in Central Nigeria with all seriousness. Since the Kafanchan crisis of 1987, there has been efforts to depopulate certain areas in Central Nigeria of Muslim populations. Attempts have been made to trivialize the killings even in international circles which in other parts of the world would have strongly detested. As I drive into many such areas, I am reminded by their empty walls of settlements that were once flourishing there. And they are many. They have been ransacked and destroyed by agents of hate similar to those that carried the killings in Bosnia, Rwanda, Sudan and Congo. The culprits are known. They walk the streets free with the readiness to seize the next slight opportunity and repeat their horrendous acts.

The victims have no way of getting justice in Nigeria. The killings are serving the political interests of the present leadership, cultivating bad blood amongst northerners to ensure the electoral victory. And since the price of life is naught in Africa, no matter the thousands killed in every round of violence, there will always be publishers from other regions who always trivialize the atrocities, praise the criminals and vilify the victims. In almost all the cases, law enforcement agents side with the culprits and aid in the massacres. A stoppage is effected only with military intervention. Thereafter, lopsided arrests are made while the criminals go Scot free. It is a perfect case for the ICC to intervene.

But the ICC is reluctant, except for the recent threat which its prosecutors issued in the wake of the recent post-election violence, ostensibly at the instance of the Nigerian government. When civil society groups pressed the ICC Chief Prosecutor to investigate the ethnic cleansing that has been taking place in Central Nigeria, his reaction was that they have not reached the threshold for his intervention! It seems that on the scale of the ICC, lives of different races carry different weights. While the killing of 8,000 Bosnians was sufficient to kick-start its engine of justice, for Africa, the victims must be in hundreds of thousands. A figure like the Rwandan 700,000 Tutsis may just be eligible.

In any case, with the future unity of Nigeria increasingly becoming untenable, an investment by the ICC in stopping the recurring carnage in Nigeria will be yield dividends for the future. So while from a distant land of Africa we join the ICC in celebrating the arrival of its latest guest, Radko Mladic, we plead to the court to consider all lives equal and recognize the fact that there are many Mladics in Nigeria deserving to join him.

27 May, 2011

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Sharhi 5. Matsalar Talaka


Na Dr. Aliyu U. Tilde

Jiya aka tafka wata muhawara a Arewa INEC Registration Group, daya daga cikin zaurukan Intanet na Arewa. Uwata mai suna Nana Asma'u Gwadabe ce ta ce ita takaici ya dameta don 'yankudu suna zagin manyanmu mu kuma muna tayasu. A karshe, inji Nana, mu ke cutuwa don komai munin 'yar yatsa, mutum ba ya guntuleta ya yar. Naka ai nake ne, ta ce.

Maganarta kuwa ya biyo bayan yadda wasu 'yankudu suka yi ca akan Mai Martaba, Sarkin Kano, Alhaji Ado Bayero, ne don ya tsawatawa Mataimakin Shugaban Kasa, Alhaji Namadi Sambo, akan rashin tsaida lokaci. Namadi ya ce zai zo fadar Sarki karfe 10, amma shi ne bai bayyana ba sai karfe daya. Sarki da jama'arsa suka sha jira na tsawon awa uku. Wannan shi ya sa Sarki ya nuna bacin ransa, yace wa Namadi haka bai kamata ba, kuma ya ce su tarbiyyar su Tafawa Balewa da Sardauna ne, suna girmama lokaci. Sarki kuma sai ya koma gun Gwamnan Kano Shekarau ya tuhumeshi akan rashin sanar da Namadi al'adar fadar Kano wajen kiyaye lokaci. Wannan maganar ita ta sa wasu 'yankudu zagin Sarki suna nuna wai waye shi da zai yi wa mataimakin shugaban kasa fada? Nana kuma wannan ya 'bata mata rai ta zo zauren intanet ta bayyana bacin ranta.

To, akasarin wadanda suka yi sharhi akan batun sun goyi bayan Nana, amma dai akwai kalilan wadanda suka nuna cewa ai sarakuna su suka zubar da mutuncinsu, kamar yadda ake cewa sun ci amanar talakawansu lokacin zaben shugaban kasa da ya wuce. Wata ma har tambaya ta yi wai a gaya mata meye Sarkin Kano ya yi wa Kano a shekaru takwas din da suka wuce. Kamar yadda nace akasarin masu sharhi sun ce sarki ya yi daidai, tunda ya yi kira zuwa gyara ne. Gyara kayanka kuwa ba sauke mu raba ba ne.

Amma wannan batun ya sa na yi tsokaci kan wani abu da tuntuni nake son inyi rubutu a kai. Shin wai talakawa na da ikon nunawa sarakuna yatsa a Najeriyar mu ta yau kan rashin cigaba ko koma-bayan da Arewa ke fama da shi? A fahimtata dai talaka bashi da wani kwakkwaran dalili; komai ya faru gazawarsa ne tunda ya gagara amfani da ilmi da 'yancin da tsarin mulki ya bashi ta fuskoki dabam dabam don ya kyautata rayuwarsa.

Na farko dai in a lokacin N.A. za a zargi sarakuna da handama da danne talaka, to yau Allah ya kawomu lokacin da an gama kwace mulkin daga hannunsu an mikawa talakawa kacaukau dinsa. Ikon sarakuna ya rika ja da baya tunda Sardauna ya fito da tsarin kananan hukumomi wanda aka yi ta karfafa ikonsu a shekarun da suka biyo baya har an kai inda a yau ba su da mallakar komai na madafar iko. Talaka yau shi ne wuka shi ne nama. Ina mamakin yadda za a bar dukan jaki a yi ta bugun taiki.

Ni dai talaka ne. Ba inda zurriyarmu take da nasaba da sarauta. To amma irina muna da yawa da Arewa ta ilmantar damu don mu zame mata garkuwa in mun kawo karfi. Su Sardauna, Balewa, Malam Aminu Kano da sauran magabata, kamar yadda Magaji Danbatta ya gaya mun, sun zata idan aka ilmantar da talaka to Arewa za ta cigaba, matsalolinmu za su kau.

Banda ilmantar damu, Sardauna musamman ya fara canje-canjen da zai maida Arewa kasa ta zamani a bisa turbar demokradiyya tunda ya fahimci kwanakin mulukiyya sun tasamma 'karewa. Akan wannan sun samu sabani da sarakuna da yawa har abun ya kai ga tube wasu daga cikinsu.

Hakika, a kokarinsu na tabbatar da mun amfana, magabatanmu sun sadaukar da rayuwar duniyarsu da rayukansu. Sun rike amana matukar riko. Ba wanda ya bar wani abun azo a gani bayan ransa, har Balewa da ya yi Shugaban Kasa da shi Sardaunan da ya yi Premier na Arewa. Sun tsaya tsayin daka wajen kare hakkinmu ta hanyar tabbatar da abokan zamanmu daga kudu basu dannemu ba kamar kuma yadda suka wahala kwarai wajen tabbatar da hadin kanmu duk da bambamcin harsuna da addinanmu. A karshe, wasu 'yankudu suka kashe su, suka yi shahada saboda sun hana wasu damar su mallakemu. Ko a kabarinsu har yau zaginsu 'yan kudu suke yi…da wasu lalatattun 'yan Arewa da ke taimaka musu.

To amma me muka sakawa wadannan magabatan namu da shi? Shin mu 'ya'yan talakawa mun rike amana kamar yadda suka zata? Shin mun yi amafani da ilminmu da arzikin kasa da aka danga a hannunmu wajen cimma burin cigaba? Shin mun iya mun kare Arewa daga 'yankudu kamar yadda su Sardauna da Sarakuna a lokacin suka yi? Wannan abubuwan su na yi ta tunani akai cikin shekaru goma sha biyu da suka wuce tun da na fara rubutu a jarida.

Fahimtata itace mu talakawa muke dauke da babban laifi in ba dukkansa ba.

Matsalar farko ta rashin hada kan arewa dai mu talakawa muka jawota. Gowon ya rarraba arewan nan jaha jaha don tsirarun al'ummomi su samu yanci. Muka goya masa baya. Muka karawa kananan hukumomi iko. To gashi yau muna kuka da rashin hadin kai. Ya zaka hada abun da kake son ya dauwama a rababbe? Ta nan raunin Arewa ya faro, har aka shigemu aka mana zarra.

In kuwa zancen lalacewar mulki ne nan ma mu talakawa sai mu kuka da kanmu. Mu fara da mu'kamin shugaban kasa. Ai ba wani dan sarauta da ya taba zama shugaban kasa: Gowon, Buhari, Shagari, Babangida, Abacha, Abdulsalami, Obasanjo, Yar'adua, da Goodluck, duk 'ya'yan talakawa ne in ka debe cewa Shagari dan hakimi ne, kuma uban 'Yaradua yana da sarautar jeka-na-yi-ka ta mutawallen Katsina.

Hakaza duk wadanda suka yi mulkin jihohinmu tun da aka kirkirosu, banga wani sarki da aka nada ko dansa da ya tsaya zabe don ya zama gwamnan jahar sa ba. A cikin soja ne ma kad'ai aka samu mutum daya ko biyu irinsu Sani Sami ko Muhammadu Jega wadanda suka yi gwamna da suka fito daga gidajen sarauta. Amma saura karib dinsu, sojansu da farar hularsu, 'ya'yan talakawa ne. In mai karatu ya musa, ya zana gwamnonin jaharsa, ya ga ko akwai wani dan sarki a cikinsu.

In mun dawo kasa, wajen ministoci da manyan ma'aikata a tarayya da gwamnatocin jihohi, da chairmomin local government, maganar daya ce. In ka cire irin su Hasan Usman Katsina da Shehu Yar'adua da suka yi mulkin soja, yana da wuya ka ce ga 'ya'yan sarakuna a cikin wadanda suka rike mukaman da muka ambata.

Banda mu'kaman mulki, in mun duba fannin ayyuka irin likitoci da malaman makarantu, kashi nawa ne daga cikinsu suke 'ya'yan saraki?

Mu talakawa mu kuka da kanmu. Mu muka ci amanar ilmi muka ci amanar dukiyar kasa da siyasarta. Mu muka kashe jihohinmu, da asibitocinmu, da makarantunmu, da tsare tsaren bin doka da 'da'a, da sauransu. Daga samun mulki ya dawo hannunmu sai muka shiga sata, sata, sata, sata, ba kunya ba tsoron Allah. Akasarinmu muna haka ne saboda talaucin gidajenmu wanda muke tsoron komawa cikinsa, da rashin sanin menene mulkin kansa, da rashin kishin zuci, da rashin tsoron Allah. Wallahi mun ji kunya, mun nuna talaucinmu a fili. Ta wannan hanyar kome ya lalace har talaucin zuci da na aljihu ya samu ya yi 'ka'ka-gida a Arewa.

Bugu da kari, sai muka nuna bamu damu da kowa ba, ba da talakawa 'yanuwanmu ba, ba kuma da manyanmu ba cikin sarakuna, da malamai da attajirai. Kanmu kawai muka sani. In likitoci ne mu, sai mu sace magunguna da na'urorin aikin da aka saya don amfanin jama'a. Ga asibitocin nan, fayau. In malaman makaranta ne, sai mu sace takardun karatu; kai, har naga makarantar da shugabanta, talaka, ya shiga warware jinkar makarantar yana sayarwa bayan ya gama saida na'urorin fasaha da sauransu. Kuma 'ya'yan talakawa a ma'aikatar ilmi suka daure masa gindi har yau yana aiki. Akasarin malamai kuwa sai sun ga dama suke koyarwa. Ga makarantun nan, sha-'kura, ba a koyar da komai a ciki banda yara su yi ta safa da marwa na banza. Don Allah, meye hannun sarakuna a cikin irin wannan ta'asar da muke tafkawa babu 'ka'kkautawa?

In don mun sha kaye a siyasa ne muke korafi yakamata mu fadawa kanmu gaskiya. Tun yaushe talaka ya amshi hudubar maguzancin gurguzu ya dau gaba da sarauta? Yau shekara sama da hamsin kenan. In ka debe gurare kadan a Arewa-maso-yamma, talaka ya jima da samun 'yancinsa. Ba ya sauraren sarki in ba yana da bukatar a sa masa hannu a filin da ya saya, ko takardar indijin, ko in fitina ta taso, ko in an ga wata, ko wani abu mai kama da wannan wanda ba yi da tasiri a mulki. Zaben da ya ke yi ba sarki zai zaba ba, dan'uwansa talaka zai zaba wanda zai ci amanarsa.

In magudi aka yi, su waye suke magudin? 'Ya'yan talakawa ne da ke kan mulki suke zuwa su sato kudi a baital mali da bankuna, mangala mangala, su baiwa talakawa 'yanuwansu a cikin ma'aikatan zabe da na gwamnati, da 'yan kwaya da 'yan sara suka, da 'yan siyasa. Wadannan su ne suke murde abunda 'yan uwansu talakawa suka zaba, su dora son rai. In an kai 'kara ma a kotu duk tsiyar daya ce. Talakawa ne suka cika kotun. Shi ne mai shari'a, shi ne dan sanda, shi ne lauya. Sai su amshi kudi su danne gaskiya miraran.

Hakika a zaben da ya wuce ran talaka ya baci don ya sha kaye, mummuna kuwa. Amma laifin faduwan nan ya koma kansa ne. A sharhin da na yi makon jiya, na ce talaka kamar ruwa ya ke. Kome yawansa ba zai tsinanawa kansa komai ba in ba da sa hannun shugabanni ba. Duk yadda ruwa ya kai da yawa, sai an tareshi yake amfani, in ba haka ba, zai malala ne kawai ya koma teku. Tsirrai ma ba don Allah ya sa kasa na rike ruwan na dan lokaci ba, da suma ba za su amfana da shi ba. Amma in aka tare shi a masaki, ko a randa, ko a dam, to sai a sha, a yi ibada, har a yi noman rani da shi.

Hakaza talaka. Yana da amfani ne kawai in yana da shugabancin mutum uku: sarki, malami da attajiri. Ukun nan suna da muhimmanci wajen siyasa musamman irin ta wannan zamani. Shugabanni su za su tattara talaka, in da hali, su nuna masa ga inda zai dosa da kuri'arsa har kuri'ar ta yi masa amfani. Mutanen kudu haka suke yi. Shi ya sa koyaushe kuri'un kowane yanki a cikinsu ke tahowa dunkule ta yadda zai amfanesu a tsarin zamantakewar Najeriya. Amma banda 'dan Arewa! Shi ya san komai, bai jin kowa, bai girmama kowa. Don haka wannan karon da ya yi hobbasa wai don ya yi abu shi kadai, dole gazawa ta sameshi.

Da farko dai talaka a zaben da ya wuce ya nufi wani gu inda ba wanda ya isa ya ce masa dawo. Baya jin kira. In ba Buhari ka ce masa ba, to sai ma ya auna maka kaulasen. Ba wani mai fada a ji, walau sarki, ko malami ko attajiri da ya isa yace tak. Shi, talaka, a dole sai ya karya ka'idar rayuwa. Shi za a bi, ba shi zai bi ba. Muma da muka yi kokarin nuna masa kuskurensa ba irin sunan da bai kira mu ba. To sai yanzu da ya fadi, sai ya dawo yana zargin shugabanni. Ban ce ba sarakunan da basu taimakawa Goodluck ba ko sun fi karfin kuskure ko laifi. Amma in da talaka mai amfanar kansa ne ai da ya san basu da iko kan k'uri'arsa. Wai shin me ya sa tuntuni talakan nan ya ki zaban Aminu Kano ne wai?

Kuma a duba alkalumman zaben mana. In da talakawa sun yarda da 'yanci da cigaba, ai da ba'a samu tazara mai yawa tsakanin Goodluck da Buhari ba. Mutum nawa suka ki fitowa zaben shugaban kasa a arewa-maso-yamma inda Buhari ya fito kuma yake da mafi yawan magoya baya? Miliyan goma cus! Dauki wannan adadin ka kara akan miliyoyin da basu fito zaben ba a sauran sassan Arewa, ko wadanda suka fito amma suka zabi Goodluck a matsayin dan takarar jam'iyyarsu ta PDP ko suka karbi kudi da sauran 'kayan aiki' suka zabe shi, suka bar Buhari. Kanda talakawa basu nuna kwadayi ba ko gajiyawa wajen amfani da 'yancinsa ba, ta yaya kake tsammanin Goodluck zai yi wa Buhari wannan kayen? In ko kace ai talaucin da talaka ke ciki ne ya sa shi haka, sai ka yarda cewa 'yanuwansa talakawa da suka lalata kasannan ta hanyar sata da mummunan mulki suka jawo masa.

A takaice, har yau in talakan zai hada kai da rukunnan al'umma uku da muka ambata a sama, to wannan sashi na Najeriya yana da yawan k'uri'un da zai iya cin zabe dasu ko sau dari za a maimaita. Dole talaka ya yarda mai ilmi ya hango masa nesa; dole ya yarda mai kudi ya kawo kudinsa don kare masa kuri'a; dole kuma ya yarda manyansa su bashi kwarin gwiwar fita ya yi zaben da kareshi daga barazana. Cin zabe a ko'inan ne a duniya zai yi wuya da talauci, da jahilci, da sharri, da tsageranci.

A tawa wautar irin abubuwan da yakamata mu fara karkata zuwa garesu kenan bayan shan wannan kayen. Mu koma baya mu ga inda muka yi kuskure. Dorawa shugabanni karar tsana ba zai kaimu ko'ina ba. In muna son dunkulewa wuri guda, dole mu fahimci cewa a duniyar nan kowane dan Adam wal bani wal baka ne, wal hanani wal kememe…haka saura su ke yi. In bamu waiwayesu lokacin tsaida shawara ba, kuma ba abunda muke banda zaginsu rani da damina, to zalunci ne muce za mu dora laifin gazawarmu akansu.

A yanzu kam, mu talakawa mune babbar matsalar kanmu.

Haza wasalam.

25 May 2011

Sunday, May 15, 2011

Sharhi 4. Sharrin Lasifika ga Addini da Arewa

Na Dr. Aliyu U. Tilde


Malam Idi Mijin Maikoko wani mai kiran sallah ne da aka tabayi a garin nan, Tilden Fulani. Duk wanda ya kai shekara 45 zai tuna lokacin da yake kiran sallah a masallacin kofar gidan Alhaji Sarki Mudallabi. Banda shi akwai ladanai biyu a garin lokacin nan: Malam Maikobi da ke kiran sallah a masallacin 'yan Tijjaniyya a gidan malam Baba dan Malam Hasan, uban su Malam Maikano Tilde; sai kuma Malam Dabura da ke kiran sallah a masallacin juma'a. Dukkansu ukun mutane ne masu murya. Kowa yai kiran sallah Tilde duk za ta ji. Har kiran sallar Juma'a wanda a lokacin shi kadai ne, da rana, in ba ranar kasuwa ba. Haka za ka ji shi radau a kunnenka balle kuma assalatu da ake kira da dare kafin a farka daga barci. Allah ya jikansu.

In dare ya yi kuwa, har alfijir ya keto, ba abun da za ka ji banda haushin karnuka ko kukan jakkai ko carar zakaru. Kome zai yi tsit. In za ka tashi yin sallar dare sai kayi ta yi, ba mai damunka da holo kowane iri ne, daga nan har assalatu.

Da rana kuwa, masu wa'azi kuwa suna amfani da muryarsu a masallaci. Ana haka har lasifikar hannu, Ta rataye, mai batir biyu ta zo. Ina tuna raka mahaifina masallacin Juma'a ina dauke da ita in ranar da zai yi wa'azi ne kafin zuwan liman. Wannan lasifika ta taimaka wajen sadar da sautin wa'azin ga masu zaune a harabar masallacin.

Ana haka sai lantarki ya iso Tilde a zamanin Shagari. Sai likkafa ta yi gaba, aka sayi lasifika mai aiki da lantarki, zaunanne dindindin a masallaci. Sannu a hankali, masallacin Juma'a ya rabu kashi biyu, 'Yan Izala suka bude nasu. Wa'azi fa na takaddama sai ya fara samun gin din zama a ko'ina, a kasuwa ne da masallaci. Da ma rediyo mai daukan magana ya shigo tun zamanin Gowon, ya bada damar daukar magana ana yadata a kaset. Masallacin Izala sai suka shiga sa wa'azin su a masallaci a ranar kasuwa da lokacin da ba sallah ba, musamman ranar juma'a tun karfe 12 na rana ko da dare in sun kira taron wa'azi na mako mako. Da abun ya zama salo, sai 'yan babban masallaci suma suka shiga sawa ranar juma'a.

Suma Izalar suka dare biyu. 'Yan sallama daya suka ware suka kafa nasu masallacin a kofar Alhaji Hamidu. Su ma suka shiga danna kaset a lasifika. Gari ya yi ta kara yawa, musamman da Aka fara rikicin Jos, aka yi ta gina masallatai kota'ina har ya kai yanzu dai masallatai a garin nan sun wuce 50! Kowanne kuma da lasifika. Da yawa daga cikinsu kuma suna wa'azi bayan sallar asuba kafin mutane su watse, wasu kuma sukan danna kaset din wa'azi tun kiran sallar farko har lokacin da za a tada ikama.

A da duk wadannan abubuwan ba su damar ba sossai don lasifikokin lokacin ba su da amo mai karfi. Amma fa a shekarun baya bayan nan, abun ya zama azimun. Ka duba girman Tilde, wanda ya ya kai kilomita biyu, masallatan nan in suka kunna wasu rantama rantaman lasifikokinsu, malam sai dole ka farka daga barci. In ko kiyamullaili kake ko wata addu'a, kana munajati da Allah, dole ka daina ko ka yi aikin banza. In sautin karatun kur'ani ko na wa'azi da ke caccakar kunnenka daga masallatan nan ya danno, sai ka nade buzunka ka koma gado ka yi lib a mayafi. Kai ba ga sallah ba, ba kai ba ga bacci ba. Dole ka saurari abun da ake cewa, dau'an au karhan.

A lokacin azumi kuwa abun ya fi kamari. Lokacin da sararin samaniya da kunnuwan mutane za su huta kadan ne, na yan sa'o'i kalilan tsakanin karfe 11 na dare da karfe 3 na safe. Amma in ba a wannan lokacin ba, to fa duk garin a hargitse yake da sauti kala kala, a wasu masallatan an danna karatun kur'ani, a wasu tafsiri, a wassu wa'azi. Toh, tunda masallatan da yawa, sai ka rude ma ka rasa wanne za ka ji, wanne za ka bari. Wannan holon in ya yi yawa, sau da yawa sai ya zame alheri saboda hankalinka ba zai iya kama abu daya ba, don haka sai ka yi ta sallarka, da addu'o'inka. In ka kare, sai ka ci sa'a ma har ka samu damar rintsawa kafin asuba. In gari ya waye za a sake kwatawa, don lokacin ne masallatai dabam dabam ke gudanar da tafsiri. Wani ya yi bayan asuba, wani da hantsi, wani da rana, wani da yamma, wani bayan magariba, wani bayan 'isha'i kafin kare 11. Haka dai. Mu da samun sakat sai an ce an ga wata.

Akwai matsaloli sosai wajen gurbata sararin samaniya da sauti mai karfi a lokuta dabam dabam. Akwai takurawa, da cutarwa, da cin hakkin mutane, da wulakanta Kurani, da fallasa sirrin al'umma da haddasa fitina. Wannan magana haka take koda kuwa wane irin sauti ne. Ka ga dai akwai maras lafiya da ke bukatar rintsawa. Akwai tsoffi da wadanda shekarunsu ya fara nisa da basa iya barci mai zurfi na lokaci mai tsawo, akasari sai gab da asuba barcin ya ke dawo musu bayan ya yanke na awoyi da yawa. Akwai wadanda sun kwana kiyamullaili suna bukatar gyangyadawa kafin asuba. Akwai masu karatun K'ur'ani da ke bukatar natsuwa kan abun da suke karantawa. Akwai yan lambu, da masu sana'ar itace, da lodin tipa, da magina da duk masu aikin karfi da ke bukatar barci mai tsawo da dare don su samu karfin samun kuta yaumin din gobe. Akwai..akwai… abun ba iyaka. Duk wadannan an shiga hakkinsu ta hanyar amfani da lasifika da karanta ya wuce masallacin da aka kunna ta.

Banda takurawa da shiga hakkin mutane, babban sharrin da lasifikokin masallatai da masu sa wa'azi a cikinsu ke yi shi ne haddasa fitina tsakanin musulmi su kansu, da kuma tsakanin musulmi da makobtansu kirista ko masu addinin gargajiya, musamman a manyan birane da gurare irin Tilde inda ake zaune a cakude da juna. Ka sa kaset din wa'azi a lasifika kana kiran wasu musulmi kafirai, ka ga kana kara ruruta wutar gaba da haddasa rarraba a tsakaninku.

Ka sa kaset din wa'azin da aka yi a Barno ko a Kano wanda a ciki ake zagin kirista ana ce musu arna da sauran bakaken maganganu wanda sam bai dace ba ajisu a bakin mai wa'azi Ba. Me kake tsammani zuciyarsu za ta dauki addininka? Wa'azin zai kara jawo su ne ko zai kara sa suki addininka? Kasa kaset na wa'azi a Tilde, Bauchi, Jos, Mangu, Kaduna, Riyom, Kuru, Pankshin, Zangon Kataf, Kafanchan, ko Zonkwa, wanda a ciki ake kira ga musulmi su yi shirin yaki da arna, kowa na ji, kai ko ka koma gida ka kwanta kuma a gidan nan naka ko wukar yanka akuya baka da ita. Shin kana jin wanda kake kira arna, wadanda ka zo ka zauna a kasarsu, sai su koma su kwanta su yi biris da maganarka? Duk ranar da wanda kake kira arne ya zarta maka wuka a wuya ko ya daba maka ita a ciki, ko ya auna maka alma a ka, ai ka san kai ka jawo.

Sannan kuma ka dau sirrin addininka da na mutanensa duk kana ta yadawa a banza duniya na ji. Addinin ka taimakawa ko dan siyasan da kake yiwa kamfen? A wannan garin wani yaro ya dau lasifika da asuba ya kafirta wanda duk ya zabi Jonathan, ya ce ranar zabe kowa ya fito da makami. Sarki ya ce a kawo masa shi. Da ya dukufa a gabansa, aka tuhumeshi sai ya ce shi abun da yake nufi makamin addu'a ne. Nan kuwa duk abokan zamanmu sun ji sun fahimta cewa shirin fada ake yi. Meye amfanin wannan? Don haka Ba mamaki da aka yi fad an addini a garin kwana uku bayan zaben shugaban kasa.

Don yawan sa karatun Kur'ani barkatai har kunne ya saba da shi bai dauke shi a kan komai ba. Haka wa'azin. A da, kadan za ka ji sai hankalinka ya kama ya kara maka tsoron Allah, yanzu kuwa sai ka ji mai yawa qmma ko a jikinka tunda abun ya zama gashi ko'ina kamar jampa a Jos. Wannan shi ya sa sahabbai suka ce Ma'aiki (SAW) ya kasance yana kaffa-kaffan yi musu maganar addini don kar ya gunduresu. Amma mu da muka fi Annabi iyawa, maganar addini muke ko'ina, a mota, a kasuwa, a masallaci, a hanya, a rediyo, a telabijin, da sauransu. Don haka ilimi yai yawa, amma tsoron Allah ya karanta.

A nan, za mu ambaci masu sai da kaset a tashoshin mota, kasuwanni da shaguna, zaunannu ko wadanda ke kan babura. Hakaza lima man masallatan guraren kasuwanni da tashoshi, da kuma, a karshe direbobin motocin haya da ke long jani, watau masu jigila tsakanin garuruwa. Duk wadannan gurare me da basu kamata a rika sa wa'azi a cikinsu barkatai ba. In kuwa za a sa, dole a san wane iri za a sa.

Toh. Ina ga yakamata mutanen Arewa Musulmi su yi wa kansu fada. Mu san cewa in mutum ya bar daji ya zo gari ya zauna to dole ya rabu da halin dabbanci, ya san cewa sauran mutane suna da hakki, kuma akwai doka da ta hana cin hakkin mutane koda kuwa ta hanyar holo da Kur'ani ne. Kuma in don Allah ake wa'azin, to Allah bai ce a yi haka ba. Idan kuwa kungiya ake yiwa, toh ladan yin wa'azin nan da aka sa shi na gun mutane. Shi ya sa ba kasar duniya da za ka je ka samu ana irin wannan mugunyar tabi'a sai Najeriya. Ko a kasar Makka inda nan ne tushen addinin basa sa wa'azi a lasifika yadda muke sawa.

Ko a sallah ne, Allah ya cewa Annabi ya sassauta karatu. Mai shahararren littafin nan Madkhalu, Ibnul Hajj, ya yi bayani mai tsawo akan al'adar yin wa'azi da daga murya a masallaci. Ka ko san a kasar Hausa, ba littafin da Shehu Usumanu ya cirawa tuta irin Madkhalu, don na taba ji wajen malamina Malam Isa Talatan Mafara na Sokoto a 1987 cewa lokacin da Shehu Usumanu ya samu littafin sai da ya daga shi a bainar jama'a ya yi masa kirari ya ce, "Wallahi ina murna da samun littafin nan fiye da murnar cin Alkalawa." Haba Malam. Ka ji masu yi don Allah. Haka kuma Yyida Sabiq a cikin shahararren littafinsa na Fiqhus Sunnah, a babin kiran sallah, ya nuna yadda magabata suka ce wa'azi da sauti mai karfi kafin sallar asuba bidi'a ce mummuna.

Akwai abubuwa biyu da suke damunmu a nan Arewa har harkar addini na nema ta zame mana matsala. Da farko dai bamu da gwamnatoci masu karfi da za su tsaya a wanzar da doka yadda aka shimfidata. Duk hukumominmu masu rauni ne. Wannan raunin shi ya sa kowa yake abunda ya ga dama. Muatane Lamar ruwa suke, kan aka barsu sai su malala su koma rayuwar da Ba doka, irinta dabbobi su kuma suna ganin 'yanci aka basu. Sai ka ji mutum ya ce: "yoto ai in masallacin kaza sun yi lasifika suna sa wa'azi muma sai mu nemi Alhaji wane ko mu yi karo-karo mu saya mu rika sa namu." Sannan kuma in da wani gwamna zai yunkura don tsai da doka balle kan abunda ya shafi addini, toh, duk malamai sai su tsangwameshi, su kafirta shi, su ce yana yaki da Allah. Su kuma gwamnoni tunda suna son mutane lokacin zabe sai su kyale al'umma ta yi ta lalacewa. Subhanallah.

Na biyu shi ne malaman addini da almajiransu sun gagara yiwa addinin musulunci gata. Yau ko matarka ce kana son ka boyeta a gida sai ya kama tilas ta fita. In ko za ta fitan, sai ta yi lullubi, ka sa ta a motarka ku tafi tare don kar wasu su ganta su yi sha'awarta ko su ci mutuncinta. Wannan shi ne kishi Wanda Annabi ya ce maras shi ba yi da imani. Amma mun gagara yiwa addini wannan gatan. Ai ya kamata malami da almajiransa a samu sune suke kishin addini da al'ummar annanbi da yi mata lullubi ta yadda wasu ba za su ji sirrinta ba. Sai ka ce ba ma karanta surar "la tattakizu"?

Kuma ai yakamata mu ne zamu tallata addininmu mu yi masa ado don wasu su so shi. Ta haka kakanninmu maguzawa suka karbi addinin. Kanda da kaulasen addini ya zo kasar Hausa, billahillazi da har yanzu muna nan muna bugun giya tare da su Shehu Nasoba, Dan Ille Arne, da Narana, da Jikan Taru, da Alu Nabagara. Sannan bai kamata malamai don sun dau hanyar kungiyanci da son duniya ba su rika tsoron gayawa mabiyansu gaskiya. In yaro ya dauko al'adar sa kaset a masallaci, ayi masa fada a hana shi a nuna masa sharrin yin haka. Amma a rika kyale mabiya suna abun da suka ga dama don kawai su ci gaba da zama a kungiya ni a ganina ba daidai ba ne.

Ra'ayina game da lasifika a masallaci shi ne ayi amfani da shi wajen kiran sallah, da isar da sautin wa'azin da ake ga wadanda ke nesa da mai huduba. Duk wanda a gari yake son jin wa'azi ya zo masallaci ya ji. A masallacin ma sai in ba mai sallah kafin a sa wa'azin, koda kuwa nafila ce. A duba Madkhalu. Duk abunda aka yi fiye da wannan ya zama sharri. Muna fata malamai da ahugabannin kungiyoyi da almajirai Za su taimaka isar da wannan salon da aiki da shi.

Allah ya rabamu da sharrin shaidan da zai zayyana mana munanan aikinmu ya ce mana addini ne. Allah ya hada kanmu bisa alheri ya kuma bamu ikon yiwa addininsa sutura, ya ficce mu cin hakkin jama'a. Allah ya shirye mu duka. Allah jikan su Malam Idi, da maikobi, da Malam Dabura da suka yiwa addini hidima da muryarsu mai albarka a wancan karnin har muka wadatu da ita. A lokacin ba lasifika, ba takara tsakanin kungiyoyi da masu wa'azi wajen burge jam'a.

Haza wasalam.

Tilden Fulani,

16 May 2011

Saturday, May 14, 2011

Sako 3. Maraba da Dokar Hana Sadaka a Legas

Dr. Aliyu U. Tilde
A farkon wannan satin, gwamnatin Jahar Legas ta zartar da dokar hana baiwa mabarata sadaka a titunan garin Legas. Wannan dori ne kan dokar hana barar kwatakwata wacce aka kafa shekarun baya da matakin kwaso masu barar a mota daga legas din ana jibge su a manyan garuruwan Arewa, musamman Kaduna.
Dokar hana sadakar ta tanadar da daurin shekara biyu ga duk wanda aka kama yana baiwa mabaraci sadaka a titunan Legas. Ba hana sadaka dokar ta yi ba, don ta yardarwa duk maniyyaci ya kai sadakarsa masallaci ko coci ko gidajen gajiyayyu wadanda gwamnatin jahar ta tanadar.
Wani ya ji dokar ta zo masa bambarakwai. Dokar hana sadaka? In ma ba a ci sa’a ba sai ya dorawa Gwamna Fashola kaulasen don a ganinsa ya zama manna’in lil khairi, watau “wanda yake hana alheri”.
Ni kuwa a ra’ayina wannan doka ce da aka jima ana jiranta, wacce kuma za ta taimakawa al’umma fiye ma da dokar hana bara ko matakin kwaso mabaratan a maido su Arewa. Hukumomi sun sha yin dokar hana bara amma mabarata sun yi biris da wadannan dokokin tunda barar ta zame musu sana’a. Amma in aka hana mai bayarwa, ka ga mai bara in ya gama shan ranarsa yau a titi, gobe ma ya sha, jibi ya sha, ba tare da  samun ko sisi ba, gata zai yi wa kansa kiyamul laili. Sai ya zauna a gida yayi ta rusawa Fashola ashar. Nan ma, in ya ga ba ci, sai ya daina ya doshi masallaci ko coci kamar yadda doka ta tanadar. Kaga ba duka ba zagi an kau da ganinsa akan titi inda yake sa kansa cikin hadari kuma yake zubar da mutuncin addininsa da na jinsinsa.
Na yarda cewa a gaskiya Fashola ya san kan tsiya. In ba mangala, me zai kai jaki gona? Farkon na ji irin wannan doka a kasar Nijer ne. Su mutanen Nijer in anyi obalod (watau cika mota da fasinja fiye da abun da doka ta tanada), ba direban jandarmai su ke kamawa ba. A’a. Ba ruwansu da shi in sun tsaiyar da mota. Fasinjan da aka yi obalod din da shi shi ne suke fitarwa suyi ta jibja sannan su hukunta shi. Ka ga gobe in ya zo tasha ya ga mota ta cika, ba zai ce a yi obalod da shi ba. Kan da Gwamna Sule Lamido na Jigawa ya gane ma, shi ma da haka ya yi.
Mu koma kan batun bara. Kamar yadda na ce, ina maraba da dokar hana bada sadaka a titi, ba ma na Legas ba, ko a titin Bauchi ne, in Gwmanonin namu suna da katabus din yin haka. Ra’ayina akan bara, sabanin almajirci, sanannne ne don na rubuta dogon sharhi a kai bariya waccar. Almajirci wani abu ne dabam. Shi ba bara ba ne, tsarin karatun muhammadiya ne da ake koyawa yara iya karatu da rubutu, da kuma karatun Kur’ani Maigirma, da haddace shi, da rubutashi. Bara kuwa it ace gararambar da manya da yara suke yi akan titi da guraren da jama’a ke taruwa, ana roko. Akwai almajirai da yawa da basa roko akan titi da matattarar mutane. Tsanani in suna yara sukan bi gidajen mutane suna ko dan kanzo. In ko sun kai shekara 14, to sai su fara sana’a kamar noma, dinkin hula, kasuwanci da sauransu kafin su karasa hada haddarsu. In sun cira gaba kadan sai aure, da iyali, da rayuwa kamar to kowa. Don haka nake da tsattsauran ra’ayi kan bambamta bara da almajirci.
To, ina ga katon da yake baje nakasarsa a fili yana nuna wai ga abun da Allah ya maida shi don kawai a tausaya masa a bashi kudin kashewa? Kuma inda Legas kachaukau dinta za ta taru yau ta bashi kudin Alhasan Dantata, ba godewa Allah zai yi ba ya hakura ya zauna a gida. A’a. komowa gobe zai yi yana nuna dungun hannusa ko tsiyayayyun idanunsa yana cewa a bashi don Annabi. A dole ga shi shi ne wanda Allah bai yiwa gata ba.  Subhanallahi. Can gida kuwa ya yi asusu sai tara kudi ya ke yi jiddin-wala-hairan har ya sayi motoci da gidaje, abunda akasarin yake roka ma basu da shi. In ko baka bashi ba, wani mabaracin ma har zambonka zai yi, ya ce wa ‘yan uwansa mabarata, “wannan maciji ne” (wai don ka daga hannu ka ce ya yi hakuri), ko ya kiraka “Shago” (watau mai hanu dunkule kamar dan dambe), da dai sauransu.
Inda za ka gane bara ba tilas ba ce shi ne Malam Bahaushe ne kawai yake yin ta a Najeriya. In an ce Malam Bahaushe, ana nufin musulmin da ke Arewacin Najeriya kama daga kasar Nupawa har zuwa Sakkwato da Barno. Ka taba ganin wani dan kabilar kudu ko tsakiyar Najeriya yana bara, ko da kuwa musulmi ne? Wannan aikin sai mu, da yake mu muka fi rena wa Ubangiji. Don haka aka renamu a kasan nan, ake ganin mun fi kowa ci baya da talauci.
Wasu sun dauka wai bara musulunci ne. Wanda ya ce haka ya yi wa Allah karya. Daga Bakara har Nasi ba inda aka ce wani ya mai da bara hanyar cin abincinsa ko tara arziki. Abunda nassi ya yarda da shi shi ne mabukaci ya baraici daidai da bukatarsa inda yake zaton samun biyan bukatar musamman ma a tsakanin danginsa ko abokan zamansa na kusa wadanda yake da hakki kan dukiyarsu kamar yadda ya zo a Kur’ani. Amma ya tashi takanas ta Kano ya tafi wani gari da sunan bara wannan al’adar Malam Bahaushe ce da take barar da mutuncin jinsinsa gaba daya. Dole ne sauran kabilu da ke bashi sadaka Allah ya daukaka su a kansa, don maganar Annabi ba za ta fadi kasa banza ba, da ya ce hannu mai bayarwa yana sama da hannu mai karba.
To in musulunci bai yarda da bara ba, me zai sa ba za mu marawa gwamnatocinmu baya ba wajen tumbuke wannan mugunyar itaciya da take zubar mana da mutunci? Na yi murna mutane sun fara fahimtar haka don ban ji wani mai mutunci da ya ce Fashola ya yi laifi ba. Ni kam yamun daidai. Fata nake sauran gwamnoni su goyi bayansa, musamman na kudu, kafin dokar ta hauro nan Arewa.
Sai dai kuma wani hanzarin da ba gudu ba. In a Legas akwai gwamnati mai karfi, a nan Arewa bamu da gwamnatoci da za su iya aiwatar da doka, kowace iri ce kuwa. Kai dai a bar gwamnoninmu wajen yin gululu a zabe da sayar da hakkin jama’arsu samanan kalilan wa ‘yan kudu. Nan kam ba wanda ya fisu. Amma da sannu za su taho da abunda suka yi gululunsa ranar Kiyama.
A karshe muna jinjinawa Gwamna Fashola don wannan gagarumin taimako da ya yi wa Arewa. Muna kuma yi masa fatan Allah ya kara masa basira da hazaka.
Ba karambanin da zai sa in sake baiwa wani musaki sadaka a titin Legas. Ina sauka filin jirgi a Ikeja, zan kama zip din lalitata in ja, zeeep. Ba sadaka, sai a masallaci, in na yi niyya.


15 May 2011

Wednesday, May 4, 2011

Nigeria Rated 52nd on 2011 Press Freedom Index

Nigeria Rated 52nd on 2011 Freedom of the Press Index
By Aliyu U. Tilde, New York, 3 May, 2011

The year 2010 will be remembered in press circles as the one in which press fredeem dropped to its lowest level for a decade, data from Freedom House's Annual Press Freedom Index reveals.

In a report titled Freedom of the Press 2011, its managing editor, Karin Deutsch Karlekar, observed that in 2010 repressive governnments intensified their efforts to control traditional media and developed new techniques to limit the independence of rapidly expanding Internet-based media.

The report identified five major key trends in 2010 regarding press freedom, i.e. misuse of licensing and regulatory frameworks in a number of semi democratic and authoritaraian settings; control over new means of news dissemination, particularly Internet-based social media; the growing role of non-state forces in the suppression of press freedom; worsening violence against the press and impunity for such crimes, which force journalists into self-censorship or exile; and threats to media freedom remain a concern in established democracies.

The report also reveals that "only 15 prevent of the global population - one in six people - live in countries where coverage of political news is robust, the safety of journalists is guaranteed, state intrusion in media affairs is minimal, and the press is not subject to onerous legal or economic pressures."

The survey also has shown that out of the 196 countries and territories assessed during 2010, a total of 68 (35%) were rated Free, 65 (33 percent) were rated Partly Free, and 63 (32 percent) were rated Not Free.

The report categorized Nigerian press as Partly Free and rated the country 52nd, a position it shares with Equador at the tail of 105 other countries. In Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria is rated the 15th after five countries which fall into the Free Press category (Mali, Ghana, Cape Verde, Mauritius and Sao Rome) and nine others whose press are rated as Partly Free (Benin, South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Mozambique, Comoros, Lethoso, and Tanzania. Mali, at 24th position, was rated the best in Africa.

There was, however, a small numerical improvement in Nigeria, noted the report, which it attributed to expansions in media diversity and coverage, as well as the nullification of the Nigeria Press Council Act by the Federal High Court that have an effect on relaxing constraints on the media industry.

The Freedom of the Press index assess the degree of print, broadcast and internet freedom in every country in the world, analyzing the events and developments of each calendar year, said the report. Ratings, it said, are determined through an examination of three broad categories: legal environment in which mead operate; political influences on reporting and access to information; and economic pressures on content and the dissemination of news.

Ratings, the report further stated, reflect not just government actions and policies, but the behavior of the press itself in eating boundaries, evenin more restrictive environments, as well as the impact of nonstate actors. It also indicated that the basis for a press freedom status designation of Free, Partly Free, or Not Free which each country receives is derived from its numerical rating from 0 (the most free) to 100 (the least free).

The Fredom of the Press index is published annually since 1980 by Freedom House, Washington.

Ban Ki-Moon Decries New Barriers to Press Freedom

Ban Ki-Moon Decries Emergence of New Barriers to Press Freedom
by Aliyu U. Tilde, New York, 4 May, 2011

The UN Secretary-General, Ban Ki-Moon, has decried the emergence of new barriers to press freedom in the wake of new opportunities accorded by digital technology. He made the observation this morning while addressing a forum of journalists and bloggers at the United Nations in New York, as part of the activities commemorating the 20th anniversary of the World Press Freedom Day which was declared in Windhoek, Namibia in 1999.

While welcoming the contributions of such technologies to the empowerment of individuals, enriching news gathering and illuminating the hitherto hidden workings of governments, the Secretary-General regretted that "alongside these benefits stand old challenges such as the use of media to disseminate hatred and incite violence...and undeniable new barriers being imposed by States, including cyber-surveillance, digital harassment and censor the ship on the Internet."

The Secretary General called for the remembrance of journalist victims and honoring their memory by pursuing justice. He also called for better access to new media and communication technologies as a means of bridging the digital divide.

He closed his address by reaffirming the commitment of the United Nations to Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which proclaims the right of all people to “seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers”.

Earlier, as part of the commemoration, on 3 May 2011, a message was jointly released by the UN Secretary-General, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navy Pillay, and UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bakova. In stated that despite the remarkable changes in the media landscape since the Windhoek Declaration in 1991, the objective of the UN and its organs remains the promotion of freedom of expression as the foundation for human dignity and the cornerstone of democracy.

The joint message also expressed the need for Internet access to become truly global as a channel through which all voices could be heard. All principles of freedom of expression, it said, must be brought to the on-line world.

The message also condemned the killings and jailing of journalists and called for their protection. It revealed that in the last decade alone, more than 500 journalists lost their lives in the pursuit of their profession, noting that sixty killings were reported worldwide in 2010 alone. Every week, it said, brings more reports of journalists and bloggers suffering from intimidation and violence.

The events commemorating World Press Freedom Day are organized this year by the U.S. Department of State and UNESCO. The events which started on Monday, 2 May 2011 in Washington will be completed in New York on Thursday, 5 May.

Tuesday, May 3, 2011

Hillary Clinton Congratulates Zeidabadi on Award

By Aliyu U. Tilde, 3 May 2011

The ceremony for the award of 2011 UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize to the jailed Iranian Jounalist, Ahmed Zeidabadi, has just been completed in Washington. The ceremony witnessed the award of the prize in absentia by the Director of UNESCO, Irina Bokova.

Speeches were also given by a number of renowned officials of different organizations dealing with press freedom. They included Kathy Calvin, Chief Executive Officer, United Nations Foundations; representatives of the UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Foundation Ana Maria Busquets de Cano of the Guillermo Cano Foundation; David Ottaway of Nicholas B. Ottaway Foundation, Joergen Ejboel, JP/Politiken Newspaper Ltd; and Diana Senghor, President of the UNESCO/Guillermo Prize jury.

In a speech relayed via video, American Secretary of State Hillary R. Clinton congratulated the winner of the award and described him as a person that championed the cause of freedom of expression in Iran. Despite his absence at the occasion, Secretary Clinton said the ceremony offered journalists the opportunity to reflect on the principle which Zeidabadi stands for and the contribution made by journalists in safeguarding the dignity, liberty and prosperpity of mankind.

The ceremony was the last in a series of three days events that marked the World Press Freedom Day in Washington and jointly sponsored by the Department of State and UNESCO. They were attended by journalists and bloggers from various parts of the world.